1.(a) Define orderliness
1. (b) State six ways of exhibiting orderliness in the society.
(a) Definition of Orderliness; Orderliness is the quality or habit of appreciating and systematic way with the aim of achieving set goals. It is the condition where things follow laid down procedures or are properly arranged.
(b) Six ways of exhibiting orderliness in the society:
(i) Decorum in habits, relations, actions, programmes at the bus stop.
(ii) Queuing Culture by obeying rules that promotes orderliness like queuing at the ATM points.
(iii) Obeying traffic regulations or rules when driving.
(iv) Listening skills and politeness in the public.
(v) Tolerance of oppositions i.e, tolerating opposing views, religions and social critics.
(vi) Due process and justice; allowing thing to follow their proper order.
2. Highlight five skills for resolving inter-communal conflicts
Skills for resolving inter-communal conflicts:
(i) The law court: Inter-communal conflicts can be resolved through the law court by using legal method or means.
(ii) Inter-communal conflicts can be resolved by the community leaders like Oba, Obi, Chief, Church or Mosque leaders.
(iii) Dialogue: the opposing communities can meet to map out or work out how to resolve the differences or disputes between them.
(iv) Mediation: the government can set up special panel to mediate between communities in conflict.
(v) Reconciliation: this is the process of bringing the conflicting parties together for peace talk.
(vi) Special Peace Keeping Task Force: Special peace keeping to roe like the police, army etc can be specially set up by government to restore peace in the communities.
3. (a) What is constituted authority.
3. (b) Highlight six advantages of constituted authority.
meaning of constituted authority: Constituted Authority refers different forms of leadership established for the smooth and proper running of a society. This can also be the lawful and constitutional power given to an individual or groups to govern a particular local state or federal government. It is the power and authority derived from the constitution and it is legal and lawful.
(b)Advantages of Constituted authority:
(i) It preserves values, maintains order and sustains development
(ii) It ensures the smooth running of the society.
(iii) It manages social conflicts and ensure orderliness through the prevention, settling and intermediary functions.
(iv) It maintains laws and orders and ensure stability of its territories.
(v) It provides social services such as good roads, pipe borne water, electricity, health care, security etc.
(vi) It ensures and provides economic stability in its territory.
(vii) It ensures. political stability.
4. (a) Mention three drugs that can be abused.
4. (b) List six visible behaviour of drug addicts.
4. (c) State two social consequences of drug abuse.
(a) Drugs that can be abused:
(vi) Inhalants (cocaine, heroine)
(b) Visible behaviour of drug addicts.
(i) Lies and deceits
(v) Disobedience to authority
(vii) Unethical and impulsive behaviours
(c) Social consequences of drug abuse:
(i) Crime: Increase in criminal activities
(ii) Loss of job
(v) Irresponsible behaviours
5. (a) Identify three ways people living with HIV/AIDS (PLVHA) are discriminated against.
5. (b) Explain three reasons why stigmatization of people living HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) should be discouraged.
Ways people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are discriminated against are:
(i) Termination of appointment: the appointment of people with HIV/AIDS may be unjustly terminated.
(ii) Abuse: HIV/AIDS patients are subjected to physical and verbal abuse, ostracised and outright rejection.
(iii) Lack of care and or support from family members.
(b) Reasons why stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) should be discouraged are:
(i) It makes people living with HIV/AIDS feel rejected, unwanted and useless, whereas this is not.
(ii) It makes people living with HIV/AIDS ashamed of themselves and so they keep their HIV/AIDS status a secret. This makes it impossible for them to get their right and also put other members of the society at greater risk of infection.
(iii) Loss of livelihood: when a person living with HIV/AIDS losses his livelihood, it becomes more difficult for them to take care at themselves and immediate family.
6. (a) Highlight three ways by which Nigerian youths are empowered.
6. (b) State three social consequences of high rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
(a) Ways by which Nigerian youths are being empowered are:
(i) Skill acquisition programmes.
(ii) Private and governmental initiatives.
(iii) National or state schemes like NYSC.
(iv) Inclusion of skill acquisition in school curriculum.
(v) Through sporting activities.
(b) Social Consequences of high rate of youth empowerment in Nigeria are:
(i) Increase of social vices.
(ii) Increase in crime rate or criminal activities.
(iii) Prostitution will increase.
(iv) it will increase gangsterism (cultism).
(v) It encourages kidnappings.
(vi) It does not encourage development.
7. (a) in what five ways can citizens demonstrate political apathy
7. (b) Give five reasons for political apathy.
(a) Ways citizens demonstrate political apathy
(I) Refusal to register for election.
(ii) Refusal to register for election.
(iii) Unwillingness to join political party.
(iv) Unwillingness to attend party activities.
(v) Unwillingness to contest election.
(b) Reasons for political apathy:
(i) Bad governance.
(ii) Unfulfilled political promises.
(iii) Lack of transparency in election.
(iv) Lack of security (insecurity).
(v) Poor political culture.
(vi) Political violence and rigging of election.
(vii) Negative campaigns.
(viii) Unwanted candidate/party.
8. State five ways illiteracy can be a challenge to popular participation in a democracy.
Ways illiteracy can be a challenge to popular participation in a democracy:
(i) One who is not literate might not be able to differential the names or symbols on the posters or ballot papers and thus •nay vote wrongly.
(ii) An illiterate may not be aware-of his or her political rights and responsibilities and thus can not discharge such.
(iii) An illiterate person may not hold any leadership position at the party level.
(iv) One who is an illiterate is not qualified to run for elective office.
(v) An illiterate person may not be able to convince the electorate to vote for their candidate or part in an election.
9. Explain five reasons. why account ability should be the watchword of public servants.
Reasons why accountability should be the watchword of public servants;
(i) Trust: this is very important to a public servant because it makes the public to trust them and vote for them in subseol.fent election or appointment. Besides, the public servant is holding the post he is entrusted with in trust on behalf of the public and so he is accountable to them.
(ii) Reputation: the reputation of every public servant is at state. For the public servant to maintain or keep his reputation, he must be accountable to the people.
(iii) Every public servant takes the oath of allegiance before assuming public office, therefore they have to be accountable to show or prove that they actually served in obedience to oath taken.
(iv) To win the public: when are elected public servant is accountable he is able to win the heart of the people. Being accountable helps to show case what he has done or is doing and what he intends to do.
(v) Transparency: Accountability makes the public servant transparent and avoid issues of fraud or fraudulent practices. It shows how fair and just he has used the people’s resources.
10. a) Explain Law and order
10. b) Highlight four effects of law and order on Nigerians
10. c) Highlight four achievements of Nigerian nationalist before independence
a) Law and Order is a condition in which the existing rules, regulations, norms and related legal codes are recognized and observed for the sustenance of peace, orderliness and security of lives and property in society.
b) Effects Of Law And Order On Nigerians
- It ensures peace and harmony in the society.
- It guarantees security of life and property of Nigerians.
- It promotes orderly behaviour of citizens/queuing culture.
- It ensures social stability in human relationships among Nigerians.
- It promotes socio-economic development.
- It promotes effective function of societal institutions.
- It promotes accountability of the government to the governed.
- It ensures tolerance of other peoples opinion/views.
- It ensures obedience to constituted authorities.
- It enhances due process/justice/equity/fairness.
c) Highlight four achievements of Nigerian nationalist before independence
- Establishment of newspapers/radio/television.
- Contribution to growth of education.
- Formation of political parties.
- Formation of nationalist movements/platforms/trade unions.
- Contribution to the formation of youth movements.
- Instrumental to the formation of West African Students Union (WASU).
- Represented Nigeria in constitutional conferences.
- Fought for the independence of Nigeria.
- Mobilized Nigerians through rallies and protests.
- Mobilized workers for industrial actions against colonial policies/rules.
- a) Define traffic regulations.
- (b) Highlight six roles of individuals in maintaining traffic regulations.
11 a) Define traffic regulations.
11 b) Highlight six roles of individuals in maintaining traffic regulations.
a) Define traffic regulations;
Traffic regulation can be defined as the rules and regulations which guide the behavior or action of road users. This is in place in order to prevent accidents and enhance the free flow of traffic.
b) Highlight six roles of individuals in maintaining traffic regulations.;
- Creating public awareness through workshops/seminars.
- Forming road safety clubs in schools, colleges and associations.
- Wearing reflexive attires while walking at night.
- Using pedestrian facilities where available.
- Individuals should be safety conscious.
- Avoiding commercial activities by the road side.
- Avoiding erection of buildings close to highways/roads
- Avoiding night travels where necessary.
- Avoiding putting pressure on driver to over speed.
- Obtaining valid driver’s license.
- Discouragement of under-age driving.
12 a) What is cultism?
12 b) Highlight six reasons for the formation of cult groups.
a) Cultism is a secret practice by members of cult groups whose activities are violent and extreme in nature.
b) Reasons for the formation of cult groups
- Desire to hide one’s weaknesses.
- Failure on the part of the family/poor parenting.
- Negative peer group influence.
- Inadequate religious and moral education.
- Poor students welfare in schools/colleges.
- Desperate satisfaction of aspirations/academic success.
- Mass media influence.
- Tacit support of academic staff of schools and colleges.
- Threat by lecturers.
- Quest for justice.
13. State five ways citizens can help in minimizing human trafficking.
- Supporting international cooperation/efforts in the suppression of traffic in persons by land, sea and air.
- Adopting measures to increase the effectiveness of eradication of trafficking in persons.
- Establishment of recreational centers.
- Publishing report on the state of human trafficking.
- Individuals should imbibe the virtue of hard work.
- Acquisition of formal/informal education/skills for self-reliance.
- Individual should imbibe the value of contentment.
- Individual should build their self-esteem and confidence.
- Promotion of Girl-child education.
- Parents should be discouraged from giving out their children as house helps without proper investigation.
14. a) Define HIV/AIDS.
14. b) List two causes of HIV/AID.
a) HIV/AIDS is an infection that attacks and destroys the immune system in human body and makes the infected person to develop the incurable Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that makes the carrier open to opportunistic infections.
b) Ways of preventing HIV/AIDS;
- Abstinence from unprotected sexual intercourse.
- Using of condom/barrier method.
- Being faithful to one’s partner (wife/husband).
- Use of screened blood during transfusion.
- Use of sterilized objects.
- Avoid sharing of sharp objects.
- Use of disposable sharp objects e.g. needle/syringe.
- Encouraging voluntary testing for HIV/AIDS.
15 a) List the three tiers of government in Nigeria.
15 b) State six functions of government in Nigeria.
a) Three tiers of government;
- Federal government.
- State government.
- Local government.
b) Functions of government in Nigeria;
- Law making.
- Law implementation and execution.
- Law adjudication/interpretation.
- Constitutional amendment.
- Provision of social amenities/infrastructures.
- Maintenance of law and order.
- Protection of lives and property/security.
- Provision of job opportunities/employment.
16. a) Highlight three features of the rule of law
16. b) Explain three importance of rule of law
a) Features of rule of law;
- The supremacy of the law.
- Equality before the law.
- Absence of arbitrary rule/law or arbitrariness in the application of the law.
- Fundamental human rights.
b) Importance of rule of law;
- Supremacy of the constitution.
- Ensures press freedom.
- Guarantees peace and unity in society.
- It promotes democratic practices.
- Allows for the equality of all citizens.
- Gives room for appeal.
- It protects citizens against arbitrary rule/unlawful detention.
- It guarantees fundamental human rights.
- It ensures orderliness in the society.
- It promotes transparency and accountability in government.
17. Explain five ways through which leaders can protect the interest of their followers
- Good governance in the society.
- Ensuring security of lives and property.
- Involving them in the process of decision making.
- Building strong democratic institutions.
- Promoting education of the followers/citizens.
- Providing measures for the safety of followers.
- Promoting good relationship with neighbours.
- Providing the basic needs for the survival of the followers e.g. employment/shelter/poverty eradication etc.
- Promoting consensus building in governance.
- Encouraging popular participation.